Global Sandarac Gum Market: Industry Analysis and Forecast (2020-2026) by Form, Application, Distribution Channel, and Region

Global Sandarac Gum Market size was valued at US$ XX Bn. in 2019 and the total revenue is expected to grow at 2.8 % through 2020 to 2026, reaching nearly US$ XX Bn.

Global Sandarac Gum Market Overview:

Sandarac Gum is obtained from Sandarac Trees found predominantly in the regions of North Africa and Morocco. Sandarac Gum is yellowish in color, faintly aromatic, and is brittle in form. High Alcohol solubility and the presence of colloidal properties have resulted in a wide-scale use of Sandarac Gum in the Chemical Industry. Sandarac Gum holds properties that are used in preserving painting materials. Sandarac Gum acts as a catalyst agent that prevents the drying of chemicals and provides aromatic essence which is used on a large scale in manufacturing varnish and lacquer. Sandarac Gum is used as a flavor enhancer in manufacturing organic cosmetics products and holds a large scale use in manufacturing traditional medicines in the region of Africa. An increase in demand for chemical solutions around the world has resulted in a rise in demand for Sandarac Gum. Wide-scale industrial consumption and rising demand for traditional medicines have resulted in the growth in the Global Sandarac Gum Market.

Global Sandarac Gum Market Dynamics:

Sandarac Gum is used predominantly in the Chemical Industry as Coating and Pigmenting Agent. The presence of aromatic essence is used on a large scale in manufacturing paint, varnish, dye, and chemical solvents. A report by WTO states that the demand for aromatically rich chemicals has observed a 4% increase in demand on a global level. This report states the ample amount of opportunities for Sandarac Gum in the Global Chemicals Manufacturing Market. A report by Takeshi Yamazaki and others published in Food Hygiene and Safety Science state that the presence of sandaracopimaric acid in Sandarac Gum exceeds 11% which is the highest found in natural form. Sandarac Gum because of this element has earned a global level acceptance as the aroma enhancer for cosmetics products. Its organic form and safe to use status have resulted in increased use of Sandarac Gum by the Cosmetics Industry. A report by WHO states that more than 65% of the global population suffers from diseases caused by Tapeworm. The spread of this disease is concentrated more in the middle and low-income countries and more than 15% of the people living in developed nations suffer from these diseases. Sandarac Gum provides a low-cost medicinal option in the form of traditional and processed medicine to treat people suffering from Tapeworm Diseases. Sandarac Gum is used in manufacturing alcohol and medicines that work effectively on mental health-related issues like stress, anxiety, and depression. Sandarac Gum is used on a large scale in Aromatherapy which is observing a 4% increase in the number of people living in metropolitan areas in the US and Europe. On 16 June 2017, Rosarium Blends launched Sandarac Gum product in ½ Oz Packaging. A wide-scale application in the Chemical, Cosmetics and Personal Care Products Industry is the driving factor for the growth of the Global Sandarac Gum Market.

Restraints:

The preference for low-cost synthetic alternatives by people on a large scale is the major restraining factor here.

Global Sandarac Gum Market Segment Analysis:

The Global Sandarac Gum Market is segmented on the basis of By Form, It is observed that more than 45% of Sandarac Gum used in the industries is in powdered form. Sandarac Gum in liquid form has observed a growth of 3% owing to its increased consumption by the Pharmaceutical Industry. Sandarac Gum is crystalline in its natural form. By Application, It is observed that more than 25% of the Sandarac Gum available in the market is consumed by chemical industries for coating and pigmenting chemicals and metals. An increase in demand for organic products has resulted in the increased use of Sandarac Gum in food products and cosmetics. An increase in preference for healthy food products has resulted in a 3% increase in demand for Sandarac Gum as a flavor additive by the food processing industry. An increase in the number of people preferring traditional medicines for joint pain, gastrointestinal diseases, and digestion-related issues has resulted in a 2.1% increase in the consumption of Sandarac Gum by the Healthcare Sector. The presence of aromatic essence has resulted in increased use of Sandarac Gum in manufacturing perfumes and Aromatherapy. Different products use Sandarac Gum as per need. Global Sandarac Gum Market To know about the Research Methodology :- Request Free Sample Report By Distribution Channels, It is observed that mediums like Direct Sales, Retail Stores, and Specialty Stores where the manufacturer comes in direct contact with the customer holds more than 80% of the total sales of Sandarac Gum. An increase in the use of the internet by industries and people for purchasing Sandarac Gum has resulted in a 7% increase in the number of people visiting company websites and online shopping platforms. The absence of any middlemen and low cost has resulted in making Direct Sales a preferable medium for industries to purchase Sandarac Gum. It is observed that more than 46% of the revenue earned by the organized Sandarac Gum market has been generated through the mediums of Direct Sales and Retail Stores operated by the manufacturers. Specialty Stores dealing in plant-based products have observed a 3% increase in the sales of Sandarac Gum in the US and Europe. Specialty Stores that come under the Organized Sector account for more than 20% of the sales and 32% of the revenue earned by the Global Sandarac Gum Market. An increase in preference for online shopping throughout the world has resulted in a 5% increase in the sales of Sandarac Gum through different E-Commerce platforms.

Global Sandarac Gum Market Regional Insights

Global Sandarac Gum Market 1 Region-wise, Middle East and Africa is the biggest manufacturer and domestic consumer of Sandarac Gum. It is observed that Morocco produces more than 60% of the Sandarac Gum available in the market. The preference for homemade medicine and as a flavor enhancer in food products has resulted in a 2.1% increase in the consumption of Sandarac Gum in this region. The demand by the Cosmetics Industry has observed a growth of 1.6%. North America and Europe are the biggest importers and commercial consumers of Sandarac Gum. Industrial use of Sandarac Gum especially in the manufacturing industry has increased by 3.3% in North America. An increase in preference for traditional medicine has resulted in a 2.9% increase in consumption of Sandarac Gum by the North America Pharmaceutical Industry. Europe is the biggest consumer of organic cosmetics and has observed a 2.7% increase in demand for Sandarac Gum. The ever-rising population and rising consumption have resulted in a 1.7% increase in the consumption of Sandarac Gum in the Asia-Pacific. Relaxed environmental laws and the presence of the chemical industry on a large scale have resulted in a 1.4% increase in the consumption of Sandarac Gum in South America. The Middle East and Africa’s market is showing growth in the range of 0.6-1.2% from the last 6 years and most of this is concentrated in the Food and Pharmaceutical sector present in this region. The objective of the report is to present a comprehensive analysis of the global Sandarac Gum market to the stakeholders in the industry. The past and current status of the industry with the forecasted market size and trends are presented in the report with the analysis of complicated data in simple language. The report covers all the aspects of the industry with a dedicated study of key players that include market leaders, followers, and new entrants. PORTER, SVOR, PESTEL analysis with the potential impact of micro-economic factors of the market have been presented in the report. External as well as internal factors that are supposed to affect the business positively or negatively have been analyzed, which will give a clear futuristic view of the industry to the decision-makers. The report also helps in understanding the global Sandarac Gum market dynamics, structure by analyzing the market segments and Project the global Sandarac Gum market size. Clear representation of competitive analysis of key players by product, price, financial position, product portfolio, growth strategies, and regional presence in the global Sandarac Gum market make the report investor’s guide.

Global Sandarac Gum Market Scope: Inquire before buying

Global Sandarac Gum Market 2

Global Sandarac Gum Market, by Region

• North America • Europe • Asia Pacific • Middle East and Africa • South America

Global Sandarac Gum Market Key Players

• Kama Pigments • Kremer Pigmente • Indigo Herbs Ltd. • Samson Kamnik D.O.O. • Scents of Earth LLC • Guild of Limners • Earth Pigments Company LLC • Scriptorium Am Rhysprung • AF Suter & Co., Ltd. • L. CORNELISSEN & SON • Atlantis Ltd. • Parchem Fine & Specialty Chemicals • Rosarium Blends • The Paint Box • Gold Street Studios
1. Preface 1.1. Market Definition and Key Research Objectives 1.2. Research Highlights 2. Assumptions and Research Methodology 2.1. Report Assumptions 2.2. Abbreviations 2.3. Research Methodology 2.3.1. Secondary Research 2.3.1.1. Secondary data 2.3.1.2. Secondary Sources 2.3.2. Primary Research 2.3.2.1. Data from Primary Sources 2.3.2.2. Breakdown of Primary Sources 3. Executive Summary: Global Sandarac Gum Market Size, by Market Value (US$ Bn.) 3.1. Global Market Segmentation 3.2. Global Market Segmentation Share Analysis, 2019 3.2.1. Global 3.2.2. By Region (North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, South America, Middle East Africa) 3.3. Geographical Snapshot of the Sandarac Gum Market 3.4. Geographical Snapshot of the Sandarac Gum Market, By Manufacturer share 4. Global Sandarac Gum Market Overview, 2019-2026 4.1. Market Dynamics 4.1.1. Drivers 4.1.1.1. Global 4.1.1.2. By Region (North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, South America, Middle East Africa) 4.1.2. Restraints 4.1.2.1. Global 4.1.2.2. By Region (North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, South America, Middle East Africa) 4.1.3. Opportunities 4.1.3.1. Global 4.1.3.2. By Region (North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, South America, Middle East Africa) 4.1.4. Challenges 4.1.4.1. Global 4.1.4.2. By Region (North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, South America, Middle East Africa) 4.1.5. Industry Trends and Emerging Technologies 4.1.6. Porters Five Forces Analysis 4.1.6.1. Threat of New Entrants 4.1.6.2. Bargaining Power of Buyers/Consumers 4.1.6.3. Bargaining Power of Suppliers 4.1.6.4. Threat of Substitute Products 4.1.6.5. Intensity of Competitive Rivalry 4.1.7. Value Chain Analysis 4.1.8. Technological Roadmap 4.1.9. Regulatory landscape 4.1.10. Impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic on the Global Sandarac Gum Market 5. Supply Side and Demand Side Indicators 6. Global Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecast, 2019-2026 6.1. Global Sandarac Gum Market Size & Y-o-Y Growth Analysis. 7. Global Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 7.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Form, 2019-2026 7.1.1. Crystal 7.1.2. Powder 7.1.3. Liquid 7.2. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 7.2.1. Flavor Additive 7.2.2. Pharmaceutical 7.2.3. Cosmetics 7.2.4. Personal Care Products 7.2.5. Coating & Pigmentation 7.2.6. Aromatherapy 7.2.7. Others 7.3. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Distribution Channel, 2019-2026 7.3.1. Direct Sales 7.3.2. Retail Store 7.3.3. Specialty Store 7.3.4. E-Commerce 7.3.5. Others 8. Global Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, By Region 8.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Region, 2019-2026 8.1.1. North America 8.1.2. Europe 8.1.3. Asia-Pacific 8.1.4. Middle East & Africa 8.1.5. South America 9. North America Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 9.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Form, 2019-2026 9.1.1. Crystal 9.1.2. Powder 9.1.3. Liquid 9.2. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 9.2.1. Flavor Additive 9.2.2. Pharmaceutical 9.2.3. Cosmetics 9.2.4. Personal Care Products 9.2.5. Coating & Pigmentation 9.2.6. Aromatherapy 9.2.7. Others 9.3. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Distribution Channel, 2019-2026 9.3.1. Direct Sales 9.3.2. Retail Store 9.3.3. Specialty Store 9.3.4. E-Commerce 9.3.5. Others 10. North America Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, By Country 10.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Country, 2019-2026 10.1.1. US 10.1.2. Canada 10.1.3. Mexico 11. U.S. Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 11.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Form, 2019-2026 11.2. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 11.3. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Distribution Channel, 2019-2026 12. Canada Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 12.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Form, 2019-2026 12.2. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 12.3. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Distribution Channel, 2019-2026 13. Mexico Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 13.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Form, 2019-2026 13.2. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 13.3. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Distribution Channel, 2019-2026 14. Europe Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 14.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Form, 2019-2026 14.2. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 14.3. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Distribution Channel, 2019-2026 15. Europe Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, By Country 15.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Country, 2019-2026 15.1.1. U.K 15.1.2. France 15.1.3. Germany 15.1.4. Italy 15.1.5. Spain 15.1.6. Sweden 15.1.7. CIS Countries 15.1.8. Rest of Europe 16. U.K. Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 16.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Form, 2019-2026 16.2. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 16.3. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Distribution Channel, 2019-2026 17. France Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 17.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Form, 2019-2026 17.2. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 17.3. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Distribution Channel, 2019-2026 18. Germany Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 18.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Form, 2019-2026 18.2. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 18.3. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Distribution Channel, 2019-2026 19. Italy Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 19.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Form, 2019-2026 19.2. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 19.3. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Distribution Channel, 2019-2026 20. Spain Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 20.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Form, 2019-2026 20.2. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 20.3. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Distribution Channel, 2019-2026 21. Sweden Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 21.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Form, 2019-2026 21.2. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 21.3. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Distribution Channel, 2019-2026 22. CIS Countries Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 22.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Form, 2019-2026 22.2. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 22.3. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Distribution Channel, 2019-2026 23. Rest of Europe Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 23.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Form, 2019-2026 23.2. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 23.3. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Distribution Channel, 2019-2026 24. Asia Pacific Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 24.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Form, 2019-2026 24.2. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 24.3. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Distribution Channel, 2019-2026 25. Asia Pacific Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, by Country 25.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Country, 2019-2026 25.1.1. China 25.1.2. India 25.1.3. Japan 25.1.4. South Korea 25.1.5. Australia 25.1.6. ASEAN 25.1.7. Rest of Asia Pacific 26. China Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 26.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Form, 2019-2026 26.2. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 26.3. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Distribution Channel, 2019-2026 27. India Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 27.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Form, 2019-2026 27.2. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 27.3. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Distribution Channel, 2019-2026 28. Japan Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 28.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Form, 2019-2026 28.2. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 28.3. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Distribution Channel, 2019-2026 29. South Korea Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 29.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Form, 2019-2026 29.2. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 29.3. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Distribution Channel, 2019-2026 30. Australia Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 30.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Form, 2019-2026 30.2. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 30.3. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Distribution Channel, 2019-2026 31. ASEAN Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 31.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Form, 2019-2026 31.2. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 31.3. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Distribution Channel, 2019-2026 32. Rest of Asia Pacific Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 32.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Form, 2019-2026 32.2. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 32.3. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Distribution Channel, 2019-2026 33. Middle East Africa Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 33.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Form, 2019-2026 33.2. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 33.3. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Distribution Channel, 2019-2026 34. Middle East Africa Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, by Country 34.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast by Country, 2019-2026 34.1.1. South Africa 34.1.2. GCC Countries 34.1.3. Egypt 34.1.4. Nigeria 34.1.5. Rest of ME&A 35. South Africa Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 35.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Form, 2019-2026 35.2. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 35.3. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Distribution Channel, 2019-2026 36. GCC Countries Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 36.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Form, 2019-2026 36.2. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 36.3. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Distribution Channel, 2019-2026 37. Egypt Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 37.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Form, 2019-2026 37.2. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 37.3. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Distribution Channel, 2019-2026 38. Nigeria Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 38.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Form, 2019-2026 38.2. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 38.3. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Distribution Channel, 2019-2026 39. Rest of ME&A Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 39.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Form, 2019-2026 39.2. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 39.3. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Distribution Channel, 2019-2026 40. South America Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 40.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Form, 2019-2026 40.2. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 40.3. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Distribution Channel, 2019-2026 41. South America Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, by Country 41.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast by Country, 2019-2026 41.1.1. Brazil 41.1.2. Argentina 41.1.3. Rest of South America 42. Brazil Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 42.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Form, 2019-2026 42.2. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 42.3. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Distribution Channel, 2019-2026 43. Argentina Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 43.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Form, 2019-2026 43.2. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 43.3. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Distribution Channel, 2019-2026 44. Rest of South America Sandarac Gum Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 44.1. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Form, 2019-2026 44.2. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 44.3. Market Size (Value) Estimates & Forecast By Distribution Channel, 2019-2026 45. Competitive Landscape 45.1. Geographic Footprint of Major Players in the Global Sandarac Gum Market 45.2. Competition Matrix 45.2.1. Competitive Benchmarking of Key Players By Price, Presence, Market Share, Applications and R&D Investment 45.2.2. New Product Launches and Product Enhancements 45.2.3. Market Consolidation 45.2.3.1. M&A by Regions, Investment and Verticals 45.2.3.2. M&A, Forward Integration and Backward Integration 45.2.3.3. Partnership, Joint Ventures and Strategic Alliances/ Sales Agreements 45.3. Company Profile : Key Players 45.3.1. Kama Pigments 45.3.1.1. Company Overview 45.3.1.2. Financial Overview 45.3.1.3. Geographic Footprint 45.3.1.4. Product Portfolio 45.3.1.5. Business Strategy 45.3.1.6. Recent Developments 45.3.2. Kremer Pigmente 45.3.3. Indigo Herbs Ltd. 45.3.4. Samson Kamnik D.O.O. 45.3.5. Scents of Earth LLC 45.3.6. Guild of Limners 45.3.7. Earth Pigments Company LLC 45.3.8. Scriptorium Am Rhysprung 45.3.9. AF Suter & Co., Ltd. 45.3.10. L. CORNELISSEN & SON 45.3.11. Atlantis Ltd. 45.3.12. Parchem Fine & Specialty Chemicals 45.3.13. Rosarium Blends 45.3.14. The Paint Box 45.3.15. Gold Street Studios 46. Primary Key Insights

About This Report

Report ID 107341
Category Food & Beverages
Published Date June 2021
Updated Date
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