Global Clinical Laboratory Services Market: Industry Analysis and Forecast (2020-2026) – By Specialty, Provider, Application, and Region.

Global Clinical Laboratory Services Market was valued at US$ 125.60 Bn in 2019 and is expected to reach US$ 210.60 Bn by 2026, at a CAGR of 6.67 % during a forecast period. Clinical Laboratory Services are an essential part of quality healthcare delivery. The laboratory services involve the analysis of blood, urine, and other bodily fluids. It provides information that supports the diagnosis, prevention of disease.

Global Clinical Laboratory Services Market Dynamics:

Global Clinical Laboratory Services Market To know about the Research Methodology :- Request Free Sample Report The clinical laboratory services are navigating the diagnostic marketplace. An increase in consumer preference for deductible plans, demand for integrated diagnostic services with combining imaging and genomic data and the presence of suitable alternate business models like direct-to-consumer testing are some of the factors, which are expected to drive the global clinical laboratory services market growth. The demand for early and accurate disease diagnosis, high public-private investments to develop innovative laboratory testing procedures and technology developments in clinical diagnostic process are also expected to boost the global clinical laboratory services market. On the other hand, concern regarding high cost is expected to limit the growth of the clinical laboratory services market.

COVID-19 has made a positive impact on the clinical laboratory services industry growth:

COVID-19 has impacted positively the growth rate of the clinical laboratory services industry. The pandemic has boosted clinical laboratory testing services in 2020. The clinical laboratory business was dominated by concerns related to the COVID-19 pandemic. High demand for SARS-CoV-2 testing has put the industry in the public eye in 2020. The pandemic has influenced a positive impact on labs' investments. The Covid-19 pandemic has established new patterns of patient care. The federal government have taken legislative and regulatory actions that boosted the growth revenue of clinical labs.

Global Clinical Laboratory Services Market Segment Analysis:

Clinical lab services are furnishing by labs, which are located in hospitals and physician offices or independent labs. The clinical chemistry segment is expected to grow at an XX% rate of CAGR during the forecast period. The segment is expected to contribute more than 45% share because of the number of clinical chemistry performed test. An introduction of innovative technologies, sampling methods, and point-of-care testing methods are expected to drive market growth. Key players are focusing to launch an innovative system. For instance, in 2020, Ortho Clinical Diagnostics has launched a clinical chemistry system to cover lab tests. The hospital-based laboratories segment is expected to contribute XX% share in the global clinical laboratory services market. Many hospitals are taking imitative to expand their capacity for testing of SARS-CoV-2. High preference of patients for hospital service, which also deliver complex and severe disease conditions are expected to drive the market growth. In 2020, hospitals have implemented various strategies to enhance hospital facility, which has increased the demand for COVID-19 testing kits from the hospital. The bioanalytical and lab chemistry services segment is expected to grow at an XX% rate of CAGR during the forecast period. High research and development investments in drugs, which are undergoing clinical trials and growth in numbers of innovative drug candidates for clinical trials are expected to drive the market growth. Chromatography, mass spectroscopy, immunochemistry, and molecular biology are some of the technologies which are mostly used in bioanalytical and lab chemistry applications.

Global Clinical Laboratory Services Market Regional Analysis:

North America held the dominant position in 2019 and is projected to dominant its position in the near future. The U.S. clinical laboratory service market is expected to grow at an XX% rate of CAGR by 2026. A number of factors are driving the regional market growth, one of which is the presence of healthcare infrastructure and strong merger and acquisition-related to service integration. Also, a high population of chronic diseases and cancer disease, which requires support from clinical laboratory services for efficient treatment are expected to drive the market growth. The laboratories have raced to get SARS-CoV-2 testing up as case numbers rose across developed countries. Global Clinical Laboratory Services Market 1

Global Clinical Laboratory Services Market Competitive Analysis:

Key players operating in the global clinical laboratory services market have to face intense competition in the healthcare industry. Many key players are focusing on greater resources to invest in technology, capitalize on growth opportunities, and withstand downturns in the healthcare markets. According to research, across the lab industry in 2020, high testing volumes were done through laboratory services, in which more than 52 % of that volume SARS-CoV-2 testing were done. In 2020, Quest Diagnostics have raised its 2020 revenue to $9 Bn. Also, LabCorp has achieved $3 Bn revenue in 2019. Manufacturers are concentrating on the development of waive point-of-care tests to tap the large market of providers. Market key players have engaged in introducing new services to fulfil the demand of patients The objective of the report is to present a comprehensive analysis of the Global Clinical Laboratory Services Market including all the stakeholders of the industry. The past and current status of the industry with forecasted market size and trends are presented in the report with the analysis of complicated data in simple language. The report covers all the aspects of the industry with a dedicated study of key players that include market leaders, followers and new entrants by region. PORTER, SVOR, PESTEL analysis with the potential impact of micro-economic factors by region on the market has been presented in the report. External as well as internal factors that are supposed to affect the business positively or negatively have been analyzed, which will give a clear futuristic view of the industry to the decision-makers. The report also helps in understanding Global Clinical Laboratory Services Market dynamics, structure by analyzing the market segments and projects the Global Clinical Laboratory Services Market size. Clear representation of competitive analysis of key players by Application, price, financial position, Product portfolio, growth strategies, and regional presence in the Global Clinical Laboratory Services Market make the report investor’s guide.

Scope of the Global Clinical Laboratory Services Market: Inquire before buying

Global Clinical Laboratory Services Market 2

Global Clinical Laboratory Services Market, by Region

• North America • Europe • Asia Pacific • Middle East & Africa • South America

Global Clinical Laboratory Services Market Key Players

• Mayo Medical Laboratories • Labcorp • Quest Diagnostics • Spectra Laboratories • Unilabs • Synlab International • Bio-Reference Laboratories • Sonic Healthcare • Clinical Reference Laboratory • ACM Medical Laboratory • Adicon Clinical Laboratory • Cerba Healthcare • Amedes Holding • Lifelabs Medical Laboratories • Davita Healthcare Partners • Eurofins Scientific
1. Preface 1.1. Market Definition and Key Research Objectives 1.2. Research Highlights 2. Assumptions and Research Methodology 2.1. Report Assumptions 2.2. Abbreviations 2.3. Research Methodology 2.3.1. Secondary Research 2.3.1.1. Secondary data 2.3.1.2. Secondary Sources 2.3.2. Primary Research 2.3.2.1. Data from Primary Sources 2.3.2.2. Breakdown of Primary Sources 3. Executive Summary: Global Clinical Laboratory Services Market Size, by Market Value (US$ Bn) 3.1. Global Market Segmentation 3.2. Global Market Segmentation Share Analysis, 2019 3.2.1. Global 3.2.2. By Region (North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, South America, Middle East Africa) 3.3. Geographical Snapshot of the Clinical Laboratory Services Market 3.4. Geographical Snapshot of the Clinical Laboratory Services Market , By Manufacturer share 4. Global Clinical Laboratory Services Market Overview, 2019-2026 4.1. Market Dynamics 4.1.1. Drivers 4.1.1.1. Global 4.1.1.2. By Region (North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, South America, Middle East Africa) 4.1.2. Restraints 4.1.2.1. Global 4.1.2.2. By Region (North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, South America, Middle East Africa) 4.1.3. Opportunities 4.1.3.1. Global 4.1.3.2. By Region (North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, South America, Middle East Africa) 4.1.4. Challenges 4.1.4.1. Global 4.1.4.2. By Region (North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, South America, Middle East Africa) 4.1.5. Specialty Trends and Emerging Technologies 4.1.6. Porters Five Forces Analysis 4.1.6.1. Threat of New Entrants 4.1.6.2. Bargaining Power of Buyers/Consumers 4.1.6.3. Bargaining Power of Suppliers 4.1.6.4. Threat of Substitute Specialtys 4.1.6.5. Intensity of Competitive Rivalry 4.1.7. Value Chain Analysis 4.1.8. Technological Roadmap 4.1.9. Regulatory landscape 4.1.10. Impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic on the Global Clinical Laboratory Services Market 5. Supply Side and Demand Side Indicators 6. Global Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecast, 2019-2026 6.1. Global Clinical Laboratory Services Market Size & Y-o-Y Growth Analysis. 7. Global Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 7.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Specialty, 2019-2026 7.1.1.1. Clinical Chemistry Testing 7.1.1.1.1. Routine Chemistry Testing 7.1.1.1.2. Endocrinology Chemistry Testing 7.1.1.1.3. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) Testing 7.1.1.1.4. Specialized Chemistry Testing 7.1.1.1.5. Other Clinical Chemistry Testing 7.1.1.2. Microbiology Testing 7.1.1.2.1. Infectious Disease Testing 7.1.1.2.2. Transplant Diagnostic Testing 7.1.1.2.3. Other Microbiology Testing 7.1.1.3. Hematology Testing 7.1.1.4. Immunology Testing 7.1.1.5. Cytology Testing 7.1.1.6. Genetic Testing 7.1.1.7. Drug of Abuse Testing 7.2. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Provider , 2019-2026 7.2.1. Independent and Reference Laboratories 7.2.2. Hospital-based Laboratories 7.2.3. Nursing and Physician Office-based Laboratories 7.3. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 7.3.1. Bioanalytical & Lab Chemistry Services 7.3.2. Toxicology Testing Services 7.3.3. Cell & Gene Therapy Related Services 7.3.4. Preclinical & Clinical Trial Related Services 7.3.5. Drug Discovery & Development Related Services 7.3.6. Others 8. Global Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, By Region 8.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Region, 2019-2026 8.1.1. North America 8.1.2. Europe 8.1.3. Asia-Pacific 8.1.4. Middle East & Africa 8.1.5. South America 9. North America Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 9.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Specialty, 2019-2026 9.1.1.1. Clinical Chemistry Testing 9.1.1.1.1. Routine Chemistry Testing 9.1.1.1.2. Endocrinology Chemistry Testing 9.1.1.1.3. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) Testing 9.1.1.1.4. Specialized Chemistry Testing 9.1.1.1.5. Other Clinical Chemistry Testing 9.1.1.2. Microbiology Testing 9.1.1.2.1. Infectious Disease Testing 9.1.1.2.2. Transplant Diagnostic Testing 9.1.1.2.3. Other Microbiology Testing 9.1.1.3. Hematology Testing 9.1.1.4. Immunology Testing 9.1.1.5. Cytology Testing 9.1.1.6. Genetic Testing 9.1.1.7. Drug of Abuse Testing 9.2. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Provider , 2019-2026 9.2.1. Independent and Reference Laboratories 9.2.2. Hospital-based Laboratories 9.2.3. Nursing and Physician Office-based Laboratories 9.3. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 9.3.1. Bioanalytical & Lab Chemistry Services 9.3.2. Toxicology Testing Services 9.3.3. Cell & Gene Therapy Related Services 9.3.4. Preclinical & Clinical Trial Related Services 9.3.5. Drug Discovery & Development Related Services 9.3.6. Others 10. North America Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, By Country 10.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Country, 2019-2026 10.1.1. US 10.1.2. Canada 10.1.3. Mexico 11. U.S. Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 11.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Specialty, 2019-2026 11.2. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Provider , 2019-2026 11.3. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 12. Canada Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 12.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Specialty, 2019-2026 12.2. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Provider , 2019-2026 12.3. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 13. Mexico Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 13.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Specialty, 2019-2026 13.2. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Provider , 2019-2026 13.3. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 14. Europe Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 14.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Specialty, 2019-2026 14.2. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Provider , 2019-2026 14.3. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 15. Europe Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, By Country 15.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Country, 2019-2026 15.1.1. U.K 15.1.2. France 15.1.3. Germany 15.1.4. Italy 15.1.5. Spain 15.1.6. Sweden 15.1.7. CIS Countries 15.1.8. Rest of Europe 16. U.K. Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 16.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Specialty, 2019-2026 16.2. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Provider , 2019-2026 16.3. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 17. France Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 17.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Specialty, 2019-2026 17.2. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Provider , 2019-2026 17.3. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 18. Germany Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 18.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Specialty, 2019-2026 18.2. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Provider , 2019-2026 18.3. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 19. Italy Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 19.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Specialty, 2019-2026 19.2. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Provider , 2019-2026 19.3. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 20. Spain Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 20.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Specialty, 2019-2026 20.2. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Provider , 2019-2026 20.3. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 21. Sweden Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 21.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Specialty, 2019-2026 21.2. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Provider , 2019-2026 21.3. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 22. CIS Countries Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 22.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Specialty, 2019-2026 22.2. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Provider , 2019-2026 22.3. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 23. Rest of Europe Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 23.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Specialty, 2019-2026 23.2. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Provider , 2019-2026 23.3. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 24. Asia Pacific Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 24.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Specialty, 2019-2026 24.2. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Provider , 2019-2026 24.3. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 25. Asia Pacific Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, by Country 25.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Country, 2019-2026 25.1.1. China 25.1.2. India 25.1.3. Japan 25.1.4. South Korea 25.1.5. Australia 25.1.6. ASEAN 25.1.7. Rest of Asia Pacific 26. China Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 26.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Specialty, 2019-2026 26.2. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Provider , 2019-2026 26.3. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 27. India Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 27.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Specialty, 2019-2026 27.2. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Provider , 2019-2026 27.3. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 28. Japan Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 28.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Specialty, 2019-2026 28.2. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Provider , 2019-2026 28.3. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 29. South Korea Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 29.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Specialty, 2019-2026 29.2. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Provider , 2019-2026 29.3. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 30. Australia Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 30.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Specialty, 2019-2026 30.2. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Provider , 2019-2026 30.3. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 31. ASEAN Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 31.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Specialty, 2019-2026 31.2. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Provider , 2019-2026 31.3. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 32. Rest of Asia Pacific Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 32.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Specialty, 2019-2026 32.2. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Provider , 2019-2026 32.3. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 33. Middle East Africa Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 33.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Specialty, 2019-2026 33.2. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Provider , 2019-2026 33.3. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 34. Middle East Africa Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, by Country 34.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast by Country, 2019-2026 34.1.1. South Africa 34.1.2. GCC Countries 34.1.3. Egypt 34.1.4. Nigeria 34.1.5. Rest of ME&A 35. South Africa Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 35.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Specialty, 2019-2026 35.2. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Provider , 2019-2026 35.3. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 36. GCC Countries Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 36.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Specialty, 2019-2026 36.2. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Provider , 2019-2026 36.3. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 37. Egypt Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 37.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Specialty, 2019-2026 37.2. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Provider , 2019-2026 37.3. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 38. Nigeria Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 38.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Specialty, 2019-2026 38.2. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Provider , 2019-2026 38.3. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 39. Rest of ME&A Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 39.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Specialty, 2019-2026 39.2. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Provider , 2019-2026 39.3. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 40. South America Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 40.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Specialty, 2019-2026 40.2. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Provider , 2019-2026 40.3. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 41. South America Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, by Country 41.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast by Country, 2019-2026 41.1.1. Brazil 41.1.2. Argentina 41.1.3. Rest of South America 42. Brazil Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 42.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Specialty, 2019-2026 42.2. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Provider , 2019-2026 42.3. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 43. Argentina Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 43.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Specialty, 2019-2026 43.2. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Provider , 2019-2026 43.3. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 44. Rest of South America Clinical Laboratory Services Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2019-2026 44.1. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Specialty, 2019-2026 44.2. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Provider , 2019-2026 44.3. Market Size (Mn) Estimates & Forecast By Application, 2019-2026 45. Competitive Landscape 45.1. Geographic Footprint of Major Players in the Global Clinical Laboratory Services Market 45.2. Competition Matrix 45.2.1. Competitive Benchmarking of Key Players By Price, Presence, Market Share, Applications and R&D Investment 45.2.2. New Provider Launches and Provider Enhancements 45.2.3. Market Consolidation 45.2.3.1. M&A by Regions, Investment and Applications 45.2.3.2. M&A, Forward Integration and Backward Integration 45.2.3.3. Partnership, Joint Ventures and Strategic Alliances/ Sales Agreements 45.3. Company Profile : Key Players 45.3.1. Mayo Medical Laboratories 45.3.1.1. Company Overview 45.3.1.2. Financial Overview 45.3.1.3. Geographic Footprint 45.3.1.4. Specialty Portfolio 45.3.1.5. Business Strategy 45.3.1.6. Recent Developments 45.3.2. Labcorp 45.3.3. Quest Diagnostics 45.3.4. Spectra Laboratories 45.3.5. Unilabs 45.3.6. Synlab International 45.3.7. Bio-Reference Laboratories 45.3.8. Sonic Healthcare 45.3.9. Clinical Reference Laboratory 45.3.10. ACM Medical Laboratory 45.3.11. Adicon Clinical Laboratory 45.3.12. Cerba Healthcare 45.3.13. Amedes Holding 45.3.14. Lifelabs Medical Laboratories 45.3.15. Davita Healthcare Partners 45.3.16. Eurofins Scientific

About This Report

Report ID1404
Category Healthcare
Published Datesep 2019
Updated DateApril 2021
Contact Us