Global Hair Color Market- Industry Analysis and Forecast (2020-2027) – by Usage, Application, End-user, and Region.

Market Scenario

Global Hair Color Market was valued US$ 22.1Bn in 2019 and is expected to reach US$ 37.5 Bn by 2027, at a CAGR of 7.8% during the forecast period.   Global Hair Color Market The report study has analyzed the revenue impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the sales revenue of market leaders, market followers, and market disrupters in the report, and the same is reflected in our analysis. Definition: Hair coloring or hair dyeing is used to change the color of hair. Generally, it is used to hide gray or white hair and to follow the latest fashion trend of hairstyle. The color hair can discolor after Hairdressing, sun bleaching, and due to continuous washing. Global Hair Color Market Drivers & Restraints: Hair colors are available in different colors. Hair coloring is done by a professional hairdresser or by self at home. There are different styles for coloring the hair like coloring completely, coloring some specific part of hair called highlighting, and now a days Ombre hair technique is popular, in which the bottom portion of hair looks lighter than the top portion. A new trend is followed by young people to color their hair according to their clothes. The hair color compounds are chemically formed, or plant derived. Hair colors are formed by ammonia, antioxidants, dyes, fragrance, and some other chemicals are used for softening the hair, etc. Hair color may be harmful to users due to its chemicals, sometimes it causes allergic reactions or irritation. So, compounds that are used in hair color are tested several times to make them harmless for the user. The most significant reason to boost the global hair color market is that there is a continuous growth in the population globally, in that old people are using hair color to hide their grey hair and young people are using hair coloring to do ongoing fashion, etc. Furthermore, due to increase in spa and salon services which offer facilities like coloring and maintaining hair, and this factor will lead to the growth of the hair color market in the coming years. Health & wellness awareness, changing lifestyle, the good income of people, and increasing urbanization are likely to get incremental growth for the global hair color market. Due to more advertising of the product, health organization’s marketing, and by social media, consumers ensured about the product and ready to purchase them, this also boosts the demand for the product. Additionally, in today’s world people give more importance to looks and are ready to pay more money for beauty products to maintain their beauty is another key factor to swell the growth of the hair color market soon. Nearly 70% women and 10 % men are using hair dyes. In the U.S., 75 % women are using hair dyes. Almost 1.43 billion units of hair color products were sold in the United States, in 2016. On the other hand, demerits of hair coloring due to chemicals are hair damage, dry hair, hair fall and weakened roots, etc. and the government is implementing strict rules and regulations related to chemicals used in the making of hair colors to avoid any health risk. These facts may hamper the growth of the global hair coloring market. But now there is the number of treatments available for hair issues put a good impact on the global hair color market in the next few years. Regional Analysis: Region-wise, the Hair Color market is classified into North America, South America, Asia Pacific, Europe, and the Middle East & Africa. Among these, North America is the major revenue contributor to the hair color market now and in the future. Due to the presence of main leading manufacturing companies and the habit of people adopting new products according to ongoing trends. In the Asia Pacific region, countries like China and India are investing more money in the hair color market. Also, here is a demand for products due to rapid changes in lifestyle, rise in shopping habits and increase in incomes, etc. are expected to rise the growth in the hair color market in this region. The objective of the report is to present a comprehensive analysis of the Global Hair Color Market including all the stakeholders of the industry. The past and current status of the industry with forecasted market size and trends are presented in the report with the analysis of complicated data in simple language. The report covers all the aspects of the industry with a dedicated study of key players that includes market leaders, followers, and new entrants. PORTER, SVOR, PESTEL analysis with the potential impact of micro-economic factors of the market have been presented in the report. External as well as internal factors that are supposed to affect the business positively or negatively have been analyzed, which will give a clear futuristic view of the industry to the decision-makers. The report also helps in understanding Global Hair Color Market dynamics, structure by analyzing the market segments and project the Global Hair Color Market size. Clear representation of competitive analysis of key players by type, price, financial position, Product portfolio, growth strategies, and regional presence in the Global Hair Color Market make the report investor’s guide.

Scope of the Global Hair Color Market

Global Hair Color Market, By Usage

• Permanent hair color • Semi-permanent hair color • Temporary hair color • Hair highlights, and bleach

Global Hair Color Market, By Application

• Total gray coverage • Touch-up for roots • Grays highlighting

Global Hair Color Market, By End-user

• Male • Female • Unisex

Global Hair Color Market, By Region

• North America • Europe • Asia Pacific • Middle East & Africa • South America

Key players operating in the Global Hair Color Market

• L’Oreal • Revlon • Avon Products • Conair • Aroma • Estée Lauder • Godrej • HOYU • Coty • Procter & Gamble • Johnson & Johnson • Cadiveu Professional USA • World Hair Cosmetics Ltd.

Table of Contents

Global Hair Color Market 1. Preface 1.1. Report Scope and Market Segmentation 1.2. Research Highlights 1.3. Research Objectives 2. Assumptions and Research Methodology 2.1. Report Assumptions 2.2. Abbreviations 2.3. Research Methodology 2.3.1. Secondary Research 2.3.1.1. Secondary data 2.3.1.2. Secondary Sources 2.3.2. Primary Research 2.3.2.1. Data from Primary Sources 2.3.2.2. Breakdown of Primary Sources 3. Executive Summary: Global Hair Color Market Size, by Market Value (US$ Mn) 4. Market Overview 4.1. Introduction 4.2. Market Indicator 4.2.1. Drivers 4.2.2. Restraints 4.2.3. Opportunities 4.2.4. Challenges 4.3. Porter’s Analysis 4.4. Value Chain Analysis 4.5. Market Risk Analysis 4.6. SWOT Analysis 4.7. Industry Trends and Emerging Technologies 5. Supply Side and Demand Side Indicators 6. Global Hair Color Market Analysis and Forecast 6.1. Hair Color Market Size & Y-o-Y Growth Analysis 6.1.1. North America 6.1.2. Europe 6.1.3. Asia Pacific 6.1.4. Middle East & Africa 6.1.5. South America 7. Global Hair Color Market Analysis and Forecast, By Usage 7.1. Introduction and Definition 7.2. Key Findings 7.3. Hair Color Market Value Share Analysis, By Usage 7.4. Hair Color Market Size (US$ Mn) Forecast, By Usage 7.5. Hair Color Market Analysis, By Usage 7.6. Hair Color Market Attractiveness Analysis, By Usage 8. Global Hair Color Market Analysis and Forecast, By Application 8.1. Introduction and Definition 8.2. Key Findings 8.3. Hair Color Market Value Share Analysis, By Application 8.4. Hair Color Market Size (US$ Mn) Forecast, By Application 8.5. Hair Color Market Analysis, By Application 8.6. Hair Color Market Attractiveness Analysis, By Application 9. Global Hair Color Market Analysis and Forecast, By End-user 9.1. Introduction and Definition 9.2. Key Findings 9.3. Hair Color Market Value Share Analysis, By End-user 9.4. Hair Color Market Size (US$ Mn) Forecast, By End-user 9.5. Hair Color Market Analysis, By End-user 9.6. Hair Color Market Attractiveness Analysis, By End-user 10. Global Hair Color Market Analysis, by Region 10.1. Hair Color Market Value Share Analysis, by Region 10.2. Hair Color Market Size (US$ Mn) Forecast, by Region 10.3. Hair Color Market Attractiveness Analysis, by Region 11. North America Hair Color Market Analysis 11.1. Key Findings 11.2. North America Hair Color Market Overview 11.3. North America Hair Color Market Value Share Analysis, By Usage 11.4. North America Hair Color Market Forecast, By Usage 11.4.1. Permanent hair color 11.4.2. Semi-permanent hair color 11.4.3. Temporary hair color 11.4.4. Hair highlights, and bleach 11.5. North America Hair Color Market Value Share Analysis, By Application 11.6. North America Hair Color Market Forecast, By Application 11.6.1. Total gray coverage 11.6.2. Touch-up for roots 11.6.3. Grays highlighting 11.7. North America Hair Color Market Value Share Analysis, By End-user 11.8. North America Hair Color Market Forecast, By End-user 11.8.1. Male 11.8.2. Female 11.8.3. Unisex 11.9. North America Hair Color Market Value Share Analysis, by Country 11.10. North America Hair Color Market Forecast, by Country 11.10.1. U.S. 11.10.2. Canada 11.11. North America Hair Color Market Analysis, by Country 11.12. U.S. Hair Color Market Forecast, By Usage 11.12.1. Permanent hair color 11.12.2. Semi-permanent hair color 11.12.3. Temporary hair color 11.12.4. Hair highlights, and bleach 11.13. U.S. Hair Color Market Forecast, By Application 11.13.1. Total gray coverage 11.13.2. Touch-up for roots 11.13.3. Grays highlighting 11.14. U.S. Hair Color Market Forecast, By End-user 11.14.1. Male 11.14.2. Female 11.14.3. Unisex 11.15. Canada Hair Color Market Forecast, By Usage 11.15.1. Permanent hair color 11.15.2. Semi-permanent hair color 11.15.3. Temporary hair color 11.15.4. Hair highlights, and bleach 11.16. Canada Hair Color Market Forecast, By Application 11.16.1. Total gray coverage 11.16.2. Touch-up for roots 11.16.3. Grays highlighting 11.17. Canada Hair Color Market Forecast, By End-user 11.17.1. Male 11.17.2. Female 11.17.3. Unisex 11.18. North America Hair Color Market Attractiveness Analysis 11.18.1. By Usage 11.18.2. By Application 11.18.3. By End-user 11.19. PEST Analysis 11.20. Key Trends 11.21. Key Developments 12. Europe Hair Color Market Analysis 12.1. Key Findings 12.2. Europe Hair Color Market Overview 12.3. Europe Hair Color Market Value Share Analysis, By Usage 12.4. Europe Hair Color Market Forecast, By Usage 12.4.1. Permanent hair color 12.4.2. Semi-permanent hair color 12.4.3. Temporary hair color 12.4.4. Hair highlights, and bleach 12.5. Europe Hair Color Market Value Share Analysis, By Application 12.6. Europe Hair Color Market Forecast, By Application 12.6.1. Total gray coverage 12.6.2. Touch-up for roots 12.6.3. Grays highlighting 12.7. Europe Hair Color Market Value Share Analysis, By End-user 12.8. Europe Hair Color Market Forecast, By End-user 12.8.1. Male 12.8.2. Female 12.8.3. Unisex 12.9. Europe Hair Color Market Value Share Analysis, by Country 12.10. Europe Hair Color Market Forecast, by Country 12.10.1. Germany 12.10.2. U.K. 12.10.3. France 12.10.4. Italy 12.10.5. Spain 12.10.6. Rest of Europe 12.11. Europe Hair Color Market Analysis, by Country 12.12. Germany Hair Color Market Forecast, By Usage 12.12.1. Permanent hair color 12.12.2. Semi-permanent hair color 12.12.3. Temporary hair color 12.12.4. Hair highlights, and bleach 12.13. Germany Hair Color Market Forecast, By Application 12.13.1. Total gray coverage 12.13.2. Touch-up for roots 12.13.3. Grays highlighting 12.14. Germany Hair Color Market Forecast, By End-user 12.14.1. Male 12.14.2. Female 12.14.3. Unisex 12.15. U.K. Hair Color Market Forecast, By Usage 12.15.1. Permanent hair color 12.15.2. Semi-permanent hair color 12.15.3. Temporary hair color 12.15.4. Hair highlights, and bleach 12.16. U.K. Hair Color Market Forecast, By Application 12.16.1. Total gray coverage 12.16.2. Touch-up for roots 12.16.3. Grays highlighting 12.17. U.K. Hair Color Market Forecast, By End-user 12.17.1. Male 12.17.2. Female 12.17.3. Unisex 12.18. France Hair Color Market Forecast, By Usage 12.18.1. Permanent hair color 12.18.2. Semi-permanent hair color 12.18.3. Temporary hair color 12.18.4. Hair highlights, and bleach 12.19. France Hair Color Market Forecast, By Application 12.19.1. Total gray coverage 12.19.2. Touch-up for roots 12.19.3. Grays highlighting 12.20. France Hair Color Market Forecast, By End-user 12.20.1. Male 12.20.2. Female 12.20.3. Unisex 12.21. Italy Hair Color Market Forecast, By Usage 12.21.1. Permanent hair color 12.21.2. Semi-permanent hair color 12.21.3. Temporary hair color 12.21.4. Hair highlights, and bleach 12.22. Italy Hair Color Market Forecast, By Application 12.22.1. Total gray coverage 12.22.2. Touch-up for roots 12.22.3. Grays highlighting 12.23. Italy Hair Color Market Forecast, By End-user 12.23.1. Male 12.23.2. Female 12.23.3. Unisex 12.24. Spain Hair Color Market Forecast, By Usage 12.24.1. Permanent hair color 12.24.2. Semi-permanent hair color 12.24.3. Temporary hair color 12.24.4. Hair highlights, and bleach 12.25. Spain Hair Color Market Forecast, By Application 12.25.1. Total gray coverage 12.25.2. Touch-up for roots 12.25.3. Grays highlighting 12.26. Spain Hair Color Market Forecast, By End-user 12.26.1. Male 12.26.2. Female 12.26.3. Unisex 12.27. Rest of Europe Hair Color Market Forecast, By Usage 12.27.1. Permanent hair color 12.27.2. Semi-permanent hair color 12.27.3. Temporary hair color 12.27.4. Hair highlights, and bleach 12.28. Rest of Europe Hair Color Market Forecast, By Application 12.28.1. Total gray coverage 12.28.2. Touch-up for roots 12.28.3. Grays highlighting 12.29. Rest Of Europe Hair Color Market Forecast, By End-user 12.29.1. Male 12.29.2. Female 12.29.3. Unisex 12.30. Europe Hair Color Market Attractiveness Analysis 12.30.1. By Usage 12.30.2. By Application 12.30.3. By End-user 12.31. PEST Analysis 12.32. Key Trends 12.33. Key Developments 13. Asia Pacific Hair Color Market Analysis 13.1. Key Findings 13.2. Asia Pacific Hair Color Market Overview 13.3. Asia Pacific Hair Color Market Value Share Analysis, By Usage 13.4. Asia Pacific Hair Color Market Forecast, By Usage 13.4.1. Permanent hair color 13.4.2. Semi-permanent hair color 13.4.3. Temporary hair color 13.4.4. Hair highlights, and bleach 13.5. Asia Pacific Hair Color Market Value Share Analysis, By Application 13.6. Asia Pacific Hair Color Market Forecast, By Application 13.6.1. Total gray coverage 13.6.2. Touch-up for roots 13.6.3. Grays highlighting 13.7. Asia Pacific Hair Color Market Value Share Analysis, By End-user 13.8. Asia Pacific Hair Color Market Forecast, By End-user 13.8.1. Male 13.8.2. Female 13.8.3. Unisex 13.9. Asia Pacific Hair Color Market Value Share Analysis, by Country 13.10. Asia Pacific Hair Color Market Forecast, by Country 13.10.1. China 13.10.2. India 13.10.3. Japan 13.10.4. ASEAN 13.10.5. Rest of Asia Pacific 13.11. Asia Pacific Hair Color Market Analysis, by Country 13.12. China Hair Color Market Forecast, By Usage 13.12.1. Permanent hair color 13.12.2. Semi-permanent hair color 13.12.3. Temporary hair color 13.12.4. Hair highlights, and bleach 13.13. China Hair Color Market Forecast, By Application 13.13.1. Total gray coverage 13.13.2. Touch-up for roots 13.13.3. Grays highlighting 13.14. China Hair Color Market Forecast, By End-user 13.14.1. Male 13.14.2. Female 13.14.3. Unisex 13.15. India Hair Color Market Forecast, By Usage 13.15.1. Permanent hair color 13.15.2. Semi-permanent hair color 13.15.3. Temporary hair color 13.15.4. Hair highlights, and bleach 13.16. India Hair Color Market Forecast, By Application 13.16.1. Total gray coverage 13.16.2. Touch-up for roots 13.16.3. Grays highlighting 13.17. India Hair Color Market Forecast, By End-user 13.17.1. Male 13.17.2. Female 13.17.3. Unisex 13.18. Japan Hair Color Market Forecast, By Usage 13.18.1. Permanent hair color 13.18.2. Semi-permanent hair color 13.18.3. Temporary hair color 13.18.4. Hair highlights, and bleach 13.19. Japan Hair Color Market Forecast, By Application 13.19.1. Total gray coverage 13.19.2. Touch-up for roots 13.19.3. Grays highlighting 13.20. Japan Hair Color Market Forecast, By End-user 13.20.1. Male 13.20.2. Female 13.20.3. Unisex 13.21. ASEAN Hair Color Market Forecast, By Usage 13.21.1. Permanent hair color 13.21.2. Semi-permanent hair color 13.21.3. Temporary hair color 13.21.4. Hair highlights, and bleach 13.22. ASEAN Hair Color Market Forecast, By Application 13.22.1. Total gray coverage 13.22.2. Touch-up for roots 13.22.3. Grays highlighting 13.23. ASEAN Hair Color Market Forecast, By End-user 13.23.1. Male 13.23.2. Female 13.23.3. Unisex 13.24. Rest of Asia Pacific Hair Color Market Forecast, By Usage 13.24.1. Permanent hair color 13.24.2. Semi-permanent hair color 13.24.3. Temporary hair color 13.24.4. Hair highlights, and bleach 13.25. Rest of Asia Pacific Hair Color Market Forecast, By Application 13.25.1. Total gray coverage 13.25.2. Touch-up for roots 13.25.3. Grays highlighting 13.26. Rest of Asia Pacific Hair Color Market Forecast, By End-user 13.26.1. Male 13.26.2. Female 13.26.3. Unisex 13.27. Asia Pacific Hair Color Market Attractiveness Analysis 13.27.1. By Usage 13.27.2. By Application 13.27.3. By End-user 13.28. PEST Analysis 13.29. Key Trends 13.30. Key Developments 14. Middle East & Africa Hair Color Market Analysis 14.1. Key Findings 14.2. Middle East & Africa Hair Color Market Overview 14.3. Middle East & Africa Hair Color Market Value Share Analysis, By Usage 14.4. Middle East & Africa Hair Color Market Forecast, By Usage 14.4.1. Permanent hair color 14.4.2. Semi-permanent hair color 14.4.3. Temporary hair color 14.4.4. Hair highlights, and bleach 14.5. Middle East & Africa Hair Color Market Value Share Analysis, By Application 14.6. Middle East & Africa Hair Color Market Forecast, By Application 14.6.1. Total gray coverage 14.6.2. Touch-up for roots 14.6.3. Grays highlighting 14.7. Middle East & Africa Hair Color Market Value Share Analysis, By End-user 14.8. Middle East & Africa Hair Color Market Forecast, By End-user 14.8.1. Male 14.8.2. Female 14.8.3. Unisex 14.9. Middle East & Africa Hair Color Market Value Share Analysis, by Country 14.10. Middle East & Africa Hair Color Market Forecast, by Country 14.10.1. GCC 14.10.2. South Africa 14.10.3. Rest of Middle East & Africa 14.11. Middle East & Africa Hair Color Market Analysis, by Country 14.12. GCC Hair Color Market Forecast, By Usage 14.12.1. Permanent hair color 14.12.2. Semi-permanent hair color 14.12.3. Temporary hair color 14.12.4. Hair highlights, and bleach 14.13. GCC Hair Color Market Forecast, By Application 14.13.1. Total gray coverage 14.13.2. Touch-up for roots 14.13.3. Grays highlighting 14.14. GCC Hair Color Market Forecast, By End-user 14.14.1. Male 14.14.2. Female 14.14.3. Unisex 14.15. South Africa Hair Color Market Forecast, By Usage 14.15.1. Permanent hair color 14.15.2. Semi-permanent hair color 14.15.3. Temporary hair color 14.15.4. Hair highlights, and bleach 14.16. South Africa Hair Color Market Forecast, By Application 14.16.1. Total gray coverage 14.16.2. Touch-up for roots 14.16.3. Grays highlighting 14.17. South Africa Hair Color Market Forecast, By End-user 14.17.1. Male 14.17.2. Female 14.17.3. Unisex 14.18. Rest of Middle East & Africa Hair Color Market Forecast, By Usage 14.18.1. Permanent hair color 14.18.2. Semi-permanent hair color 14.18.3. Temporary hair color 14.18.4. Hair highlights, and bleach 14.19. Rest of Middle East & Africa Hair Color Market Forecast, By Application 14.19.1. Total gray coverage 14.19.2. Touch-up for roots 14.19.3. Grays highlighting 14.20. Rest of Middle East & Africa Hair Color Market Forecast, By End-user 14.20.1. Male 14.20.2. Female 14.20.3. Unisex 14.21. Middle East & Africa Hair Color Market Attractiveness Analysis 14.21.1. By Usage 14.21.2. By Application 14.21.3. By End-user 14.22. PEST Analysis 14.23. Key Trends 14.24. Key Developments 15. South America Hair Color Market Analysis 15.1. Key Findings 15.2. South America Hair Color Market Overview 15.3. South America Hair Color Market Value Share Analysis, By Usage 15.4. South America Hair Color Market Forecast, By Usage 15.4.1. Permanent hair color 15.4.2. Semi-permanent hair color 15.4.3. Temporary hair color 15.4.4. Hair highlights, and bleach 15.5. South America Hair Color Market Value Share Analysis, By Application 15.6. South America Hair Color Market Forecast, By Application 15.6.1. Total gray coverage 15.6.2. Touch-up for roots 15.6.3. Grays highlighting 15.7. South America Hair Color Market Value Share Analysis, By End-user 15.8. South America Hair Color Market Forecast, By End-user 15.8.1. Male 15.8.2. Female 15.8.3. Unisex 15.9. South America Hair Color Market Value Share Analysis, by Country 15.10. South America Hair Color Market Forecast, by Country 15.10.1. Brazil 15.10.2. Mexico 15.10.3. Rest of South America 15.11. South America Hair Color Market Analysis, by Country 15.12. Brazil Hair Color Market Forecast, By Usage 15.12.1. Permanent hair color 15.12.2. Semi-permanent hair color 15.12.3. Temporary hair color 15.12.4. Hair highlights, and bleach 15.13. Brazil Hair Color Market Forecast, By Application 15.13.1. Total gray coverage 15.13.2. Touch-up for roots 15.13.3. Grays highlighting 15.14. Brazil Hair Color Market Forecast, By End-user 15.14.1. Male 15.14.2. Female 15.14.3. Unisex 15.15. Mexico Hair Color Market Forecast, By Usage 15.15.1. Permanent hair color 15.15.2. Semi-permanent hair color 15.15.3. Temporary hair color 15.15.4. Hair highlights, and bleach 15.16. Mexico Hair Color Market Forecast, By Application 15.16.1. Total gray coverage 15.16.2. Touch-up for roots 15.16.3. Grays highlighting 15.17. Mexico Hair Color Market Forecast, By End-user 15.17.1. Male 15.17.2. Female 15.17.3. Unisex 15.18. Rest of South America Hair Color Market Forecast, By Usage 15.18.1. Permanent hair color 15.18.2. Semi-permanent hair color 15.18.3. Temporary hair color 15.18.4. Hair highlights, and bleach 15.19. Rest of South America Hair Color Market Forecast, By Application 15.19.1. Total gray coverage 15.19.2. Touch-up for roots 15.19.3. Grays highlighting 15.20. Rest of South America Hair Color Market Forecast, By End-user 15.20.1. Male 15.20.2. Female 15.20.3. Unisex 15.21. South America Hair Color Market Attractiveness Analysis 15.21.1. By Usage 15.21.2. By Application 15.21.3. By End-user 15.22. PEST Analysis 15.23. Key Trends 15.24. Key Developments 16. Company Profiles 16.1. Market Share Analysis, by Company 16.2. Competition Matrix 16.2.1. Competitive Benchmarking of key players by price, presence, market share, Applications and R&D investment 16.2.2. New Product Launches and Product Enhancements 16.2.3. Market Consolidation 16.2.3.1. M&A by Regions, Investment and Applications 16.2.3.2. M&A Key Players, Forward Integration and Backward Integration 16.3. Company Profiles: Key Players 16.3.1. L’Oreal 16.3.1.1. Company Overview 16.3.1.2. Financial Overview 16.3.1.3. Product Portfolio 16.3.1.4. Business Strategy 16.3.1.5. Recent Developments 16.3.1.6. Development Footprint 16.3.2. Revlon 16.3.3. Avon Products 16.3.4. Conair 16.3.5. Aroma 16.3.6. Estée Lauder 16.3.7. Godrej 16.3.8. HOYU 16.3.9. Coty 16.3.10. Procter & Gamble 16.3.11. Johnson & Johnson 16.3.12. Cadiveu Professional USA 16.3.13. World Hair Cosmetics Ltd. 17. Primary Key Insights

About This Report

Report ID 68529
Category Consumer Goods & Services
Published Date August 2020
No of Pages 190
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